The Sun worship is an age-old practice throughout the world. He is the visible god; one can see him, perceive him and feel him.
In India too Sun worship is prevalent from time immemorial. In the Navagraha system he is considered central one and all other grahas rotate him in a specific pattern.
According to Hindu mythology he is the son of a sage called Kasyapa. He rides on a single wheel chariot drawn by six horses around the Earth each day. He has two wives Chaya and Usha. The Saturn (Shani-one of the Navagraha), Yama (Hindu god of death) and Karna (of the epic Mahabharata) are his sons.
In Vedic astrology, he is considered as a mild malefic graha on account of his hot, dry nature. Lord Shiva is the Lord of this graha. He rules the zodiac sign Aries.
In Hindu astrology he represents Soul, Courage, general vitality, will-power, authority, father, highly sourced people and eyes. So, if somebody is blessed in any of these matters it means Surya is in a favorable position. If not, otherwise.
His favorite metal is gold or brass and the gemstone is Ruby.
The temple has a tank called Suryapushkarani which is considered holy.This is the only temple where one can have darshan of all other Grahas in one place.
The Chola king KulotungaChola built the temple between 11thand 12th Century AD.
Temple is 15 kilometers away from Kumbakonam.